Table of Content
Table Olives Type, Processing And Packaging Requirements
As per FSSAI definition “Table Olives” means the product prepared from sound fresh fruits cultivated of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) having reached proper maturity for processing. The shape, flesh-to-stone ratio, fine flesh, taste, firmness and ease of detachment from the stone, make them suitable for processing and have characteristic colour, flavour, odour and texture of the fruits.
1.Types of table olives:
Depending on the degree of ripeness olives can be classified as below: –
- Green olives are harvested during the ripening period, prior to colour development, when they reached to their normal size.
- Olives turning colour are harvested before the stage of complete ripeness is attained at colour change.
- Black olives are harvested when fully ripe or slightly before full ripeness is reached.
2.Types of processed olives
Types of processed olives are given below: –
(a) Natural Olives are green olives, olives turning colour or black olives directlyadded in brine. In brine, olives undergo complete or partial fermentation, whether preserved or not by the addition of permitted acidifying agents are: –
- Natural green olives
- Natural olives turning colour
- Natural black olives
(b) Treated Olives aregreen olives, olives turning colour or black olives that have undergone alkaline treatment are: –
- Treated green olives in brine
- Treated olives turning colour in brine
- Treated black olives
- Green ripe olives
(c) Dehydrated or shriveled olives: – Green olives, olives turning colour or black olives that have undergone or not undergone mild alkaline treatment, preserved in brine or dehydrated in dry salt or by heating or by other technological process, namely: –
- Dehydrated or shriveled green olives
- Dehydrated or shriveled olives turning colour
- Dehydrated or shriveled black olives
(d) Olives darkened by Oxidation are green olives or olives turning colour preserved in brine, fermented or not, and darkened by oxidation with or without alkaline medium and shall be of uniform brown to black colour.
(e) Other types of olives are olives prepared by means distinct from or in addition to above, shall retain the name “olive” as long as the fruit is in accordance with the specification provided.
- Styles available in Olives:
Olives may be offered in the following styles, namely: –
(a) Whole Olives: – Olives, with or without their stem, which have natural shape and from which the stone (pit) has not been removed.
(b) Cracked Olives: – Whole olives undergone a process whereby the flesh is opened without breaking the stone (pit), which remains whole and intact inside the fruit.
(c) Split Olives: – Whole olives that are split lengthwise by cutting into the skin and part of the flesh
(d) Stoned (pitted) Olives: – Olives from which the stone (pit) has been removed and which retain their natural shape.
(e) Halved Olives: – Stoned (pitted) or stuffed olives sliced into two parts, perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the fruit.
(f) Quartered Olives: – Stoned (pitted) olives split into four parts, perpendicularly to the major axis of the fruit.
(g) Divided Olives: – Stoned (pitted) olives cut lengthwise into more than four parts.
(h) Sliced Olives: – Stoned (pitted) or stuffed olives sliced into segments of uniform thickness.
(i) Chopped or Minced olives: – Small pieces of stoned (pitted) olives of no definite shape and devoid (no more than 5 per 100 of such units by weight) stem insertion or slice fragments.
(j) Broken Olives: – Olives broken while being stoned (pitted) or stuffed which may contain pieces of stuffing material.
(k) Stuffed Olives: – Stoned (pitted) olives filled either with one or more suitable products together with pimiento, onion, almond, celery, anchovy, olive, orange or lemon peel, hazelnut or capers with edible pastes.
(l) Salad Olives: – Whole broken or broken-and stoned (pitted) olives with or without capers, plus stuffing material.
(m) Olives with capers: – Whole, or stoned (pitted) olives, usually small in size, with capers and with or without stuffing.
- Essential composition and quality factors of olives
(i) Ingredients: – Permitted ingredient list in olives are: –
- Water (potable)
- Edible salts
- Olive oil or other edible vegetable oils as specified.
- Honey and nutritive sugars as specified.
- Any single or combination of edible material used as an accompaniment or stuffing
- Spices and Aromatic herbs or natural extracts.
(ii) Packing brines: – (A) Packing brines is the solution of salts dissolved in potable water, with or without addition of some or all the ingredients specified in entry (i).
(B) Brine shall be clean, free from foreign matter and shall comply with the hygiene requirements.
(C) Fermented olives in packing medium may contain micro-organisms used for fermentation, including lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.
Physico-chemical characteristics of the packing brine
|Type and preparation||Minimum sodium chloride content||Maximum pH Limit
|Natural olives (by weight)||6.0%||4.3|
|Treated olives (by weight)||5.0%||4.3|
|Pasteurized treated and natural olives||GMP||4.3|
|Dehydrated or shriveled olives (by weight)||8.0 per cent.||GMP|
|Darkened by oxidation with||GMP||GMP|
(c) Drained weight of product shall not be less than 50.0 per cent. of net weight of the contents for whole olives. and 40.0 per cent. of net weight of the contents of Stoned (pitted) and stuffed olives.
(d)The container shall occupy 90.0 percent of the water capacity of the container..
(e) The water capacity of the container is the volume of distilled water at 200C, which the sealed container is capable of holding when completely filled.
- Food additives:
The product may contain food additives specified in Appendix A to these regulations.
- Contaminants, toxins and residues:
The product shall comply with the provisions of the Food Safety and Standards (Contaminants, toxins and Residues) Regulations, 2011.
(a) The product shall be prepared and handled in accordance with the guidelines specified in Schedule 4 of the Food Safety and Standards (Licensing and Registration of Food Businesses) Regulations, 2011 and such other guidelines as specified from time to time under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (34 of 2006).
(b) The product shall follow the standards of microbiological requirement specified in Regulations.
(a) For labelling of the product, the provisions of the Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labelling) Regulations, 2011 shall apply.
(b) In the case of stuffed olives, the style of stuffing shall be indicated in the following manner, namely: –
(i) “olives stuffed with ….” (single or combination of ingredients); or
(ii) “olives full …. with paste” (single or combination of ingredients)
(c) The packing medium (brine) along with its strength shall also be declared on the label.
- Table Olives. Food Safety and Standards Regulations (Food Products Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011.Accessed on 7th February 2019.