Food Fortification In India: FSSAI Standards For Micronutrients

Food delivery systems often fail to provide many important vitamins and minerals such as Vitamin A, iron, folate, iodine, zinc causing serious health consequences. Food fortification can reduce or prevent the deficiency of one or more micro nutrients also known as “Hidden hunger” amongst the population. Food Fortification is defined as “deliberately increasing the content […]

Food delivery systems often fail to provide many important vitamins and minerals such as Vitamin A, iron, folate, iodine, zinc causing serious health consequences. Food fortification can reduce or prevent the deficiency of one or more micro nutrients also known as “Hidden hunger” amongst the population.

Food Fortification is defined as “deliberately increasing the content of essential micronutrients in a food so as to improve the nutritional quality of food and to provide public health benefit with minimal risk to health”. On the 2nd August 2018 FSSAI has come up with Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2018 with mandatory fortification standards for some micronutrients if the fortification of those products is followed.

 List of food products included are as below:

  1. Iodized Salt (Fortified with Iodine)- Shall be fortified at level 20-30 parts per million (on dry weight basis) from potassium iodate source on manufacturing. Whereas, for distribution and retail level 15-30 parts per million (on dry weight basis) from potassium iodate source shall be added. Other parameters to be kept in mind for fortified salt suggests that the total matter insoluble in water where an anticaking agent has been added shall not exceed 2.2 per cent. Sodium Chloride (on dry basis) is minimum 97.0 per cent. by weight and it shall also conform other parameter as mentioned under clause (1) of sub-regulation 2.9.30 of the Food Safety and Standards (Food Product Standards and Food Additives) Regulations, 2011.
  1. Iron fortified iodized Salt (Double Fortified Salt) when fortified with Iron and Iodine- Shall fortified with 850-1100 parts per million from ferrous sulphate or ferrous fumarate sources. Double fortified salt contains Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose, Titanium dioxide full Hydrogenated Soybean oil and Sodium Hexametaphosphate (all food grade) and anticaking agent not more than 2.0 per cent. On dry weight basis and the water insoluble matter wherein, anticaking agent is used shall not exceed 2.2 per cent.

 

  1. Fortified Oil- Vegetable Oil shall be fortified with Vitamin A and Vitamin D at levels given below in table No. 1

 

Table No. 1

Nutrient Level of Nutrient Source of Nutrient
Vitamin A 6 μg RE – 9.9 μg RE per gm of oil Retinyl acetate or Retinyl palmitate
Vitamin D 0.11 μg– 0.16 μg per gm of oil. *Cholecalciferol or *Ergocalciferol

(*Only from Plant Source)

 

  1. Fortified Milk- Toned, double toned, skimmed milk or standardized milk shall be fortified with Vitamin A and Vitamin D at levels given in table No. 2 below: –

Table No. 2

Nutrient Level of nutrient Source of nutrient
Vitamin A 270 μg RE – 450 μg RE Retinyl acetate or Retinyl palmitate
Vitamin D 5 μg -7.5 μg *Cholecalciferol or *Ergocalciferol

(*Only from Plant source)

 

  1. Fortified Atta- Atta, when fortified, shall contain added iron, folic acid and Vitamin B-12 at the level given in the Table No.3 below:

Table No.3

Nutrient Level of Fortification per Kg
Iron

Ferrous citrate or Ferrous lactate or Ferrous sulphate or Ferric pyrophosphate or electrolytic iron or Ferrous fumarate or Ferrous BisGlycinate /Sodium Iron (III) Ethylene diamine tetra Acetate

Trihydrate (Sodium feredetate-Na Fe EDTA)

28 mg- 42.5 mg * /14 mg- 21.25 mg

Added at higher level to account for less bioavailability

Folic acid 75 μg- 125 μg
Vitamin B12- Cyanocobalamin or

Hydroxycobalamine

0.75 μg- 1.25 μg

In addition, atta may also be fortified with following micronutrients, singly or in combination, at the level in the Table No. 4 below:

 

Table No.4

Nutrient Level of Fortification per Kg
Zinc– Zinc Sulphate 10 mg- 15 mg
Vitamin A– Retinyl acetate or Retinyl Palmitate 500 μg RE- 750 μg RE
Thiamine (Vitamin B1)- Thiamine hydrochloride or

Thiamine mononitrate

1 mg- 1.5 mg
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)- Riboflavin or Riboflavin 5’-

phosphate sodium

1.25 mg- 1.75 mg
Niacin (Vitamin B3) -Nicotinamide or Nicotinic acid 12.5 mg- 20 mg
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)– Pyridoxine hydrochloride 1.5 mg- 2.5 mg

 

  1. Fortified Maida- Maida, when fortified, shall contain added nutrients same as given in Table No. 3 and the nutrients which can be used singly or in combination are as mentioned in Table No. 4.
  2. Fortified Raw Rice-Rice, when fortified, shall contain added iron, folic acid and Vitamin B-12 at the level given in the Table No. 5 below:

 

 Table No. 5

Nutrient Level of Fortification per Kg
Iron

Trihydrate (Sodium feredetate-Na Fe EDTA)

28 mg- 42.5 mg * /14 mg- 21.25 mg

Added at higher level to account for less bioavailability

Folic acid 75 μg- 125 μg
Vitamin B12- Cyanocobalamin or

Hydroxycobalamine

0.75 μg- 1.25 μg

 

However, Rice may also be fortified singly or in combination with nutrients mentioned in table No. 4.

FSSAI also proposed mandatory regulations to follow with respect to packaging and labelling of fortified foods.

Guidelines to follow for packaging of functional foods include: –

– Nature of fortificant added and its effects on shelf life of product shall be considered while packaging.

–  Every fortified product shall carry a statement “fortified with ………… (name of the fortificant)” and the logo on its label. It may also carry a tag line “Sampoorna Poshan Swasth Jeevan” under the logo.

Fortified with….

SAMPOORNA POSHAN

                                                            SWASTHA JEEVAN

– Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labeling) Regulations, 2011, shall also apply to the fortified foods.For food fortification Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labeling) Regulations, 2011 shall be followed.

– Food fortified with iron  shall carry a statement “People with Thalassemia may take under medical supervision”.

– Manufacturers complying to the regulation permitted to make nutrition claim in relation to fortified food under the Food Safety and Standards (Packaging and Labeling) Regulations, 2011

Food fortification or enrichment is a simple, affordable and viable approach to reach larger section of country’s population.

 

References:

1 Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2018. . F. No. 11/03/Reg/Fortification/2014. Dated -10/08/2018 (Accessed on- 6/02/2019)

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